**Graphic**

I used Microsoft Word to create the graphic. I then had to convert it into a PDF file as the file must be read only. Some of the details I took into account in the graphic were the bold, highlighted description of the property, using the same colour in both circles for the angle, the arc, the arrows and the text. I also used ‘callouts’ for some of the terminology as well as some descriptions of central angle and inscribed angle. The border outlining the terms ‘vertex’ and ‘same arc’, make the terms stand out even more. I found inserting and manipulating the shapes was quite simple to do using Word. I found some difficulty trying to determine the centre of the circle and had to create many circles and keep the mouse at the centre so I could then mark the vertex. I think visually, it can really help students see and understand that the central angle is double the inscribed angle subtended by the same arc.

link to circle geometry graphic

**Audio**

I used Audacity and Internet Archives in creating this audio file. The property I am attempting to introduce to the students is inscribed angles subtended by a semicircle are always 90 degrees, or right angles. I also found a good audio file in Internet Archives called ‘Circle Geometry’ be Nigel Simmons where he spends some time talking about triangles in a circle, especially right triangles and further, quadrilaterals and some properties of interior angles of these shapes in a circle. This is where I want the students to go next so thought it was a good way of getting them thinking about polygons inside circles. Nigel had some good coughing episodes which were fun to cut out! I was trying to get the audio at the same level throughout the file but had some difficulty raising my level of audio and quieting Nigel’s audio. Like my activities, the audio is direct and to the point so that students can focus on the content.

**Video – with audio and graphics**

This was the most enjoyable part of the assignment. I had worked on a Powtoon for one of my activities and wanted to work with some software similar to that idea. I found a site called ‘Moovly’ and found it quite user friendly. I was able to add shapes and animation as well as my own audio fairly simply. Like Abbi noted in her video exemplar, this did take a few hours to complete, which is a long time for a 45 second video, however, the end result is a good explanation with visuals and audio that is timed to help students with the understanding. I was very happy with the timing of the graphics with the audio so that students can use their auditory and visual skills in order to assist with the comprehension of these properties in action. The idea for this property is inscribed angles subtended by the same arc are congruent. This statement in itself, makes it difficult for students to understand that it is just saying, ‘inscribed angles at the same arc are equal’. I think my video helps students see and hear this much more clearly.

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**General Outcome**

Use direct and indirect measurement to solve problems.

**Specific Outcomes **

Solve problems and justify the solution strategy, using the following circle properties:

• the perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a chord bisects the chord

• the measure of the central angle is equal to twice the measure of the inscribed angle subtended by the same arc

• the inscribed angles subtended by the same arc are congruent

• a tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius at the point of tangency.

**Your Task** – Your group (3 or 4 students) will have to explain **one** of the properties of circles listed above in the specific outcomes.

You will need to include **two **of the following in your explanation:

- a graphic, using layering, portraying your property
- an audio file describing your property
- a video explaining with visuals, your property
- a piece of text describing your property

Your explanation should also include:

- definitions of any difficult terminology
- examples of questions including your property
- practice questions and answers for your colleagues

You will be presenting your explanations to the class. Each member of your group should have a speaking part, and each group member should be in charge of one of the multimedia or practice questions. This does not mean that they are the only ones creating it, but they are the leader for that task.

You should also submit a plan before you go ahead with your multimedia. You can do this on a Google doc if you like.

Here are some resources you can use to help you in creating your multimedia portions.

**Graphics –**

link to SumoPaint – a site used to create graphics with layering

YouTube video to help with layering

Microsoft Word – on computer, also can be used to create graphics

**Audio – **

Audacity – on computer, can be used to record and edit audio

YouTube video to help with editing in Audacity

link to internet archives – audio that can be safely used from the internet

**Video – **

Adobe Premier Pro – on computer, can be used to edit video

YouTube video to help with editing video

**Discussion**

This group activity is geared towards Grade 9 students and the Circle Geometry Unit in math. The idea is for each group to focus on one of the specific outcomes, and then present their projects to the class so that everyone can get some insight into each of the four outcomes. I would use this as a summative assignment after I had done some direct teaching and practice in circle geometry. Sometimes group work can be difficult to organize, so I will choose the groups the students will be working in. They are also to tell me who is in charge of which task and every group member will have a speaking role so that each member is contributing. Ohler looks at assessment and notes to ‘(i)nclude self-assessment and peer review. Include these whenever possible and appropriate. Media development relies on risk taking and honest self-assessment of the outcome. It also relies on a community of learners sharing their skills and insights.’ (Ohler, J. 2016). Creating this multimedia is a group effort and students need to be able to work and rely on each other as well as fairly assess one another.

I have used some YouTube videos to help with the tutorial process. There are so many useful videos on YouTube where students can learn visually and pause and restart the video when needed. I would like to look into creating some videos where I am walking through a ‘how to’ task on my computer. This may be something I look into for the next assignment.

The students also need to submit a plan for their project. Levine and Alexander say ‘Web 2.0 productivity tools are approaching mainstream use…For rich-media content creation, Web 2.0 tools have lowered the barriers by moving the process of (expensive) desktop video-editing software to (free) web-based applications and at the same time ostensibly moving the focus from using the tool to telling the story with the tool.’ (Alexander, B. and Levine, A. 2008). They can use a Google doc where everyone can contribute and focus on the planning rather than on the tool. This (Google docs and Google drive) have been a very successful means of groups working and communicating together in my classroom this year. There are so many online tools and software programs for free now where students can focus on their teaching and learning and not solely on using the appropriate software.

**References **

Alexander, B. and Levine, A. (2008) “Web 2.0 Storytelling: Emergence of a New Genre” *Educause Review* 43:6, November/December 2008

https://er.educause.edu/articles/2008/10/web-20-storytelling-emergence-of-a-new-genre

Ohler, J. (2016). *Art, Storytelling, Technology and Education*

http://web.archive.org/web/20160517115321/http://www.jasonohler.com/storytelling/indexWIX.cfm

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*Tasks: *

Use graphics, audio and video to understand ohm’s law to calculate resistance

*General Outcome: *

Describe technologies for transfer and control of electrical energy

*Specific Outcomes:*

- Apply Ohm’s law to calculate resistance, voltage and current in simple circuits

*Prerequisite Knowledge: *

- Students should be familiar with a basic, 3 variable formula using multiplication. Ex. Speed = Distance / Time
- Students should know that Voltage (V) is measured in Volts (V) and Current (I) is measured in Amps (A)

**Plan For Diversity:**

- Students will have a copy of the triangle formula they can refer to.
- There are different components to the lesson, ie. graphics, audio, video, readings, so that students who have various learning needs can be successful

**Lesson:**

**Introduction (Time 5 min):**

Students will look at the graphic. They should be looking at the triangle, formula and example so that they can answer the following questions:

**Practice (Time 15 min):**

- An alarm clock draws 0.5 A of current when connected to a 120 volt circuit. Calculate its resistance.
- A subwoofer needs a household voltage of 110 V to push a current of 5.5 A through its coil. What is the resistance of the subwoofer?
- Find the resistance of a bulb if a circuit contains a 1.5 volt battery and generates a current of 0.5 A

**Explanation (Time 5 min):**

Students will listen to the audio file where they are trying to gain a better understanding of resistance, the instruments used to measure them, and how voltage, current and resistance are related.

**Review (Time 5 min)**

Students will watch the video on Calculating Resistance Using Ohm’s Law. This should reiterate the formula and also stress the importance of using the correct units.

calculating resistance powtoon

**Discussion**

This multimedia enhanced lesson incorporates graphics, audio and video and is completely deliverable online. Mayer defines multimedia learning as ‘learning from words and pictures. The words can be printed text or spoken text. The pictures can be in static form, such as illustrations, photos, diagrams, charts, or maps, or in dynamic form, such as animation or video.’ (Mayer, R. 2008). The idea is that students gain an understanding of Ohm’s Law and the fact that Resistance = Voltage / Current with the help of printed and spoken text, diagrams, and animation. There are also some practice questions as these simple questions allow the students to get instant formative feedback and help them build the fundamentals in using Ohm’s Law.

There are graphics with colour and contrast so that they can look further into the Voltage and Current formulae as well. The main format of the lesson plan is chunked into sections and I have incorporated the following strategies.

‘Strategies for chunking include:

- using paragraph breaks to signal changes in topic or sub-topic
- use headings to indicate meaningful chunks of your text
- putting your content in order, consider using numbering if the sequence is an important aspect of your content
- if your content is not sequential, putting important chunks first or last – but explicitly pointing out your strategy’ (Webster, K. 2014)

The audio is direct and to the point as Carter notes, ‘(g)ood practice has the information being presented in a “news-like style” (Ferrington, 1994a, p. 63). The information also needs to be delivered in a direct manner, and without inflections, unless emphasis on particular content is intended.’ (Carter, C. 2012). The topic is specific and allows the learner to focus on resistance but also start looking at the relationships between voltage and current without having them stray too far from Ohm’s Law.

I had a little fun making the animation. I hadn’t used PowToon before but had seen my students use it for some of their assignments so thought I would try it. Familiarity tends to engage students more. The animation is also at the end of the lesson purposefully. Not only is it somewhat entertaining and light-hearted so that students should remember it better, but it reviews and summarizes the concepts taught throughout the lesson. This last step of the lesson plan is sometimes forgotten as lessons can occasionally be rushed but it is extremely important to reiterate the outcomes and concepts taught at the end of the lesson to tie the lesson together.

**References**

Carter, C. (2012). Instructional Audio Guidelines: Four Design Principles to Consider for Every Instructional Audio Design Effort. *Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice To Improve Learning*, *56*(6), 54-58.

Mayer, Richard E (2008). “Applying the Science of Learning: Evidence-Based Principles for the Design of Multimedia Instruction” *American Psychologist*, November 2008, pp. 760-769.

Webster, K.S. (2014). Text Design for Online Learning.

http://courses.olblogs.tru.ca/eddl5131-jan17/week-2-text/text-design-for-online-learning/

Here is a thumbnail of an image titled ‘Meet you under the clock at Clery’s’ from the National Library of Ireland. I couldn’t find Clery’s on this thumbnail but if you look carefully on the original image, I am hopeful you will be successful!

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I did find the move tool and rectangular select box easier to use this time so I could move different parts of the graphic around. I also added hints. I was going for the ‘callout’ look where the hints were in a different colour and at the side of the page, however I don’t think I was able to quite reach that goal! I will definitely have to continue working with Sumopaint. If anything, I am starting to appreciate the effort put into creating a graphic from scratch!

The struggling students could definitely benefit from the hints and I could create a more difficult linear equation for the students who are grasping the concepts much more quickly. I could also look into creating more layers when it comes to solving equations and having each of the different steps in a different layer, similar to Abbi’s graphic last week but with layering.

]]>The curriculum learning outcomes state:

Distinguish between sexual and asexual reproduction, and identify and interpret examples of asexual and sexual reproduction in different species, by:

− describing mechanisms of asexual reproduction including binary fission, budding and the production of spores

Sexual ReproductionAsexual Reproduction graphic

I am using both organizational and transformative graphics. The bullet list and bold, larger fonts for the titles as well as italics for the subtitles, are organizational graphics. I also used contrast to make these sections stand out to the learner. My hope is that the images act as transformative graphics which make the content memorable. The cognitive load theory states that ‘only so many elements can be simultaneously considered by a learner’ so I made sure to keep my text and visuals simple and to the point. Once a learner has a basic understanding of the concepts, only then can they go deeper into the learning.

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Cropped photo of head of bison

The students can now use the cropped photo as inspiration in their logo design, or if they prefer, can use the whole body image of the bison as well.

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