Calculating Solubility And Ion Concentrations

Key Concepts

  1. Low Solubility means < 0.1M; high Solubility means > 0.1 M.

  2. All compounds that have Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, Fr+, H+, NH4+, NO3- are always soluble. For other compounds, split the compound into ions and look into the table that is in the back of the book.

  3. Positive ions react with negative ions to give a precipitate if they have low solubility. A precipitate can be separated from a solution by filtration.

  4. The precipitate will be on the filter paper while the soluble ions will go through.

  5. To separate ions one ion must be low solubility and all others high.

Tutorial Videos:    321.mp4 ,     322.mp4 ,     

Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy (a. ke) of all particles in an object. When one increases the temperature of a solution, the a. ke of the molecules in solution increases. Therefore, increasing the amount of energy applied to the particles will make them move faster and with more force, increasing their kinetic energy and causing the average to be higher, resulting in a higher temperature. This is a direct relationship which should be recognized. In simpler terms, the increase in a. ke increases the speed of the molecules, note that change kinetic energy is not directly proportional to a change in average speed.

In retrospect, as we increase temperature the solubility of solution increases. This is because higher temperature and collisions allow the solvent molecules to break their intermolecular attractions more efficiently. This phenomena is referred to as inverse solubility, excess heat causes the equilibrium for an exothermic process to shift toward the reactants.

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