QR codes for augmented reality can be used in variety of ways and can suit many different courses and topics. For example, students can make poster of their project and put QR codes to explain more because poster does not provide enough space to include all details. Other students or staff can scan QR code and watch their video. This brings variety to teaching plan because students like to play with gadgets these days. It can be used even with concept maps where students can make concepts maps and put QR code on every node that will link to some video sharing website where video or documents are available to explain further. Such concepts maps can be printed to put on school bulletin boards. Students can access the contents that they need help in. I think one important topic is lab safety. I assign project of lab safety to my grade 10 every year. This year I can ask them to make poster and record a video to explain one aspect of lab safety. We host lot of videos on our local school server. Students can upload their video to school server and link their video to poster by putting a QR code on their poster. QR triggers all around a science laboratory can quickly help students learn the different safety procedures and protocols for the lab equipment. Now all students have smart phone with QR scanner. They can watch other’s videos and learn more in detail about all aspects of lab safety. I am sure students will enjoy it. Dalgarno and Lee argue that five affordances or benefits are spatial knowledge representation, experiential learning, engagement, contextual learning and collaborative learning. Moreover, viewer or user of contents can also check their understanding through interaction with AR contents. Moreover, video contents or other contents, to where QR code leads to, can also allow viewers to comment on. This will provide feedback to people who created contents. This feedback can allow interaction and dialogue between two unrelated persons. This also increases scope of created contents because in offline face-to-face settings, students create lot of contents just to earn marks and target audience of contents is teacher only. It is not fair that students’ efforts in creating work are wasted to earn marks only. Greater audience can boost their self-efficacy level and can also encourage students to put more effort to create quality contents. “The key message is that designing for learning must explicitly incorporate pedagogical
considerations into their specification of a technology-enhanced learning experience.”( Fowler, 2015).)
1. identify the safety and protective equipment available in the laboratory and describe how and when to use each piece of equipment
2. indicate on a school map the location of the nearest fire alarm and appropriate fire exits
3. list sources of first-aid assistance other than the classroom teacher
4. describe common chemistry laboratory hazards and the appropriate procedure or technique for dealing with each
5. produce a list of general rules of safe laboratory conduct
How augmented reality would be used to support learning?
Students can make five groups. Each group will make a poster and record a video about one learning objective. It can make learning activities very engaging students in variety of ways. Poster encourages students to involve themselves in complex mental operations and encourages thinking at the analysis and evolution level of bloom taxonomy. Students will have to collect information, decipher, categorize, which will help student look for patterns and develop inductive reasoning skills. Moreover, it provides students experience of identifying critical relationships for grouping data and thus they learn to make sense of information. Students develop poster as a group work and record video to provide contents in details. Group work will teach them collaborative skills and make learning academic and social. Furthermore, it encourages student to accept and extend ideas of others. They will put QR trigger on their poster to provide more information to other students. Other students can not only watch videos but can also provide feedback. Moreover, this can also become useful for other classes at the same time because these posters can be put on school bulletin board for greater audience. I think videos can greatly improve quality of contents. For example, typically students would make a school map and show location of nearest fire alarm and appropriate exits but if they link it to video then they can be more precise and may be walk to their and may use animation to show that route. Students may also interview other people like doctor or can connect to some YouTube video where such things are explained in greater detail. It will significantly improve quality of contents as students will connect to right source of information. Students may not understand certain aspects of lab safety very well, which will be reflected in their videos. But if they link their poster to video of an expert of lab safety then it can greatly improve students’ understanding of general safety rules in lab. One group may make a list of general safety rules in lab and can put QR code right next to each rule. The QR trigger could lead to a video or documents that can explain the rule and its applications in greater detail. Students are quite tech-savvy these days. They learn word processing and image and video manipulation skills in their school. They love to record videos.
I often use QR code in class for diagnostic assessment. Students scan QR codes that lead them to an online short quiz. On completion of the quiz, they receive email that shows them their responses and correct responses. Thus it helps students identify their shortcomings and guides them to improvements. I developed a QR trigger based assessment system, (http://usman.jksz.com:8088/makeQuestion.php) . I developed it as an effective learning-for-assessment tool to provide real time feedback to students. Teacher can use the system to assign a topic and students create questions about the topic as they read and research on that topic. Teacher side of system randomly picks questions from student-submitted question bank and allows students to write diagnostic quiz online. In this way, students are stake holder of assessment-for-learning and it also guides me to adjust my teaching practices. I have been using it for about two years now. Over this period, I have improved it a lot. First problem was some students didn’t submit right questions so I added a function to review/edit/delete student questions. Later, as the question bank grew bigger, some students started submitting same questions which were already present in the system so I had to improve logic of system to verify it against previously stored question. Moreover, interface was improved a lot to match different kind of devices that are present in students’ hand these days. Students seem to enjoy this interaction as they are quizzed mostly based on question created by them or other students from previous years. It also keeps them active in class because they know that they will be quizzed at the end of every lesson. Assessment drives learning. Moreover, it does not add lot of workload for me because I don’t have to mark hundreds of student scripts every week.
Fowler, C. (2015). Virtual reality and learning: Where is the pedagogy?. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 46(2), 412-422. doi:10.1111/bjet.12135
Dalgarno, B. & Lee, M. (2010). What are the learning affordances of 3-D virtual environments? BritishJournal of Educational Technology, 41 , 10–32.