Blog Post 3


Annotated Bibliography

Alternate Realities, Simplified: Augmented and virtual reality made easy. (2019). American Libraries50(11/12), 60–61.

Although a very short piece, I appreciated this article for being directed towards the non-specialist educator, interested in AR and VR application for use in the K-12 classroom. It introduces a purpose-built device, “the Merge Cube” built for 3D object exploration in AR/VR, as also discusses an online library of 3D educational experiences designed to enhance K-12 science curriculum. I find it particularly useful for an exemplar of what is currently available for students, in the realm of AR, as well as for the introduction of relatively low cost, purpose built devices that would allow for wider access to schools and students.

Antonioli, M., Blake, C., & Sparks, K. (2014). Augmented Reality Applications in Education. Journal of Technology Studies40(2), 96–107.

In this article, three teachers at the middle and high school level are essentially conducting a literature review, with an eye to middle and high school implementation of AR. It has a very good eye to practice, addressing technical challenges in the classroom, student and teacher concerns and classroom management. Most of the literature surveyed was quite recent, with a few pieces dating back to the early 2000’s. The authors believe that AR has great potential in making education more efficient and engaging. They are fair minded in their commentary on the various works cited, and draw from peer reviewing journals, as well as educational journalism. As a K-12 teacher investigating how to prepare for the significant growth of AR in K-12 classrooms, this article was very useful for drawing my attention to some of the practical classroom elements of AR integration.

B.C. Government. (n.d.). BC’s digital literacy framework.

This document provides goals and guidelines for grade level learning objectives and competencies sought under the “digital literacy” banner. The document draws on material from the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), and other North American and European resources. Prepared by the BC Ministry of Education, it has a great deal of curricular relevance to K-12 teachers in our province. Although broad, and somewhat general in tone, it does provide six key themes (and a number of sub-headings) to guide practice when instructing students in digital literacy. The document is well balanced between the practical skills of digital literacy, as well as building understanding of larger issues surrounding safety, privacy and copyright.

Bower, M., Lee, M. J. W., & Dalgarno, B. (2017). Collaborative learning across physical and virtual worlds: Factors supporting and constraining learners in a blended reality environment. British Journal of Educational Technology48(2), 407–430.

This article detailed a pilot project with Australian undergraduate students in an education program. A lesson was taught in both physical and virtual spaces synchronously, with projectors and cameras enabling the students in either setting to interact with one another. After the lesson, students were surveyed, and participated in focus groups, to determine ease of collaboration, ability to engage with classmates across spaces, and the overall experience of the blended environment. The data collected suggested that while the “collaboration elements” across the face to face and virtual classrooms was rated as quite good, the verbal communication aspects were not rated very highly across the divide. The article goes on to discuss various factors: pedagogical, technological and logistical, that the students felt either supported or restricted their ability to meaningfully participate in the lesson. I felt that this study was particularly relevant to my project, specifically in light of the pandemic, as I wanted to explore some of the issues surrounding blended realities, as I look to what September instruction might look like, with part time / virtual attendance.

Bower, M., Howe, C., McCredie, N., Robinson, A., & Grover, D. (2014). Augmented Reality in education – cases, places and potentials. Educational Media International51(1), 1–15.

In this article, the researchers from Macquarie University in Australia review some of the previous literature concerning AR in education. They discuss the various uses of AR in education, but then move into discussing a Learning by Design model, and a project in which 14-16-year-old students were invited to the university to participate in. After a one day workshop in various AR creation software, the students chose sculptures from the university park, and then designed AR overlays for the sculptures, incorporating video, audio, animations and commentaries. After the projects were completed, the students were debriefed, a discussion regarding their learning with and through AR was recorded, and their accompanying teachers were surveyed. The students reported a great deal of engagement with the project, in part because they were aware the AR experiences they crafted would be shared with the public.
This project was very interesting to me, and relevant to my paper, as it focused on the constructivist pedagogy, and AR artifacts being created by students, as opposed to being created for students.

Hughes, R. (2014). Augmented Reality : Developments, Technologies and Applications.
Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

I drew primarily from the first chapter of this work, which was focused on the use of AR in educational settings. The authors looked at some of the challenges in designing and utilizing AR in instructional material, with a good deal of focus on user interface in the design of AR experiences. The authors contended that a significant barrier to use of AR by educators was unfamiliarity with coding and programing languages. They looked at open source AR development tools that were graphical based and allowed for a more “WYSIWYG” experience. They also detailed other options for AR creation, requiring varying levels of computing and coding knowledge. I found the chapter particularly useful, because it addresses what is one of the chief concerns in adaptation of new educational technologies; ease of use for the instructor.

Juan Garzón, Juan Acevedo.
Meta-analysis of the impact of Augmented Reality on students’ learning gains.
Educational Research Review, Volume 27, 2019, p. 244-260,

This article conducts an analysis of fifty studies related to the use of AR with students of diverse needs. The authors discuss their methodology for searching out the various studies, the analysis of the literature, and then reports out their findings, and conclusions. I found their criteria for inclusion to be well suited for my paper, as it included recent publication (2008-2018) and focused on applications, models and frameworks of AR in relation to students with diverse learning needs. Particularly noteworthy, the authors highlighted the relative narrowness of the “target of inclusion” noting that most AR experiences and research focused on hearing impaired students and students with Autism. Identifying the gaps in AR research vis a vis diverse learners, gave a good sense of where the research and development of AR inclusive technologies needs to expand.

Kipper, G., & Rampolla, J. (2012). Augmented reality : An emerging technologies guide to AR. Retrieved from

While written largely by and for laypersons, the book did contain a fairly good survey of AR it’s emerging importance across a number of fields. Most interesting to me was the last chapter, focusing on future devices and the merging of AR into everyday life via the widespread use of avatars, and even AR contact lenses. While perhaps at times fanciful, there are some very interesting futurist minded issues that arise through this chapter.

category: EDDL 5151    

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