A plan for a lesson to educate students about the legalities and consequences of plagiarism, with a focus on the use of online resources.
Following is a plan for a lesson that is intended for my fourth year students in Senior Level Thesis 1: Research and Programming which occurs in the fall of their final year. It is a significant written endeavor which marries their studies in quantitative and qualitative research methods, liberal arts, design theory and architectural history. Their analysis must include primary and empirical data which is analysed and presented in a high level written report with a creative presentation proposal documenting how the research will inform their design proposal. Use of online resources is extensive and key issues including when/how to cite and what is a scholarly source appropriate for this type of work. This lesson/discussion would support a lesson on how to conduct a literature search and review within the first three weeks of the course.
Instructor leading statements for lesson:
Why are we conducting research? To substantiate your ideas and determine ways to improve the design solution. . . This is INFORMED design.
This supports creation of your meaningful programming document.
This is research. It is exciting, it should fuel you, and when you are done, you should still be thirsty for more.
The web-based resources can overwhelm you – today let’s consider effective means of searching, sorting and citing.
Quick recap of lit review key concepts condensed from: Based on excerpts from: Writing for Interior Design by Patricia Eakins, Fairchild Publications Inc., New York, 2005, a course reading
- Writing a literature review can help designers find and understand relationships between their own thought and that of others.”
- Your literature review is NOT simply a summary of information; ” . . . it should be written for a clear purpose within the context of YOUR design work”.
Remember, it would be impossible to read and digest and review ALL the literature that exists on a particular subject thus your search should work to uncover a manageable number of relevant, excellent sources of information.
This sifting process should be based on:
- Relevance to topic
- Type and validity of source
Critically evaluate the evidence –
- Is it valid?
- Does it apply to my project?
- How relevant is the literature to the specific project and design concept?
A smart designer learns to “qualify” the source of their literature and works to determine how “reliable” and “valid” given information is. How do you do this?
Start with the databases via our library. Our librarian has created a list of those we have found most relevant to your academic work. These include:
A comprehensive multi-disciplinary database that includes thousands of journal titles.
Provides access to 453 core scientific and technical periodicals. Covers scientific journals in fields such as chemistry, computer technology, construction industry, electronics, mathematics, mechanical engineering, physics, plastics and telecommunications.
Provides access to a broad range of articles on art related subjects, from fine, decorative and commercial art, to various areas of architecture and architectural design.
Includes 500,000 images of paintings, sculpture, decorative arts, photography, architecture, garden and landscapes, maps, fashion, costumes and jewellery.
This resource provides instant access to the current digital edition of the Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Include test methods, specifications, accepted practice, and accepted terminology for materials, products, systems and services. ASTM standards are used around the world to improve product quality, enhance safety, facilitate market access and trade, and build consumer confidence.
Provides access to journals of interest to landscape architects, farmers and biotechnologists.
Topics covered include global climate change, green building, pollution, sustainable agriculture, renewable energy, recycling, and more.
A collection of more than 200 home improvement-focused titles. Subject areas covered include architectural techniques, building design, decorating, home maintenance and tool and material selection.
Journals and magazines focused on applied and general sciences.
Includes the Health & Life Sciences and the Social & Behavioural Sciences College Edition journals collections.
Peer reviewed journals, scholarly journals, conference proceedings and reference lists from articles can direct you to further research.
A simple Google Search might get you started, Google Scholar can get you further – however, the best practice is to find a lead on those meta search engines, and then go to the source notes – that is the actual journal or author’s website. Alternatively, you can use the info you find on the Google search and use it in the electronic database search engines in the library catalogue.
- Ultimately, basing your design on “faulty” (questionable quality) literature will impact the quality and integrity of your design program, decisions, & solutions
- It is NOT OK to cite, sort of use, or refer to “literature” that you have not personally viewed, digested and tried to fully understand…it is much better to utilize fewer references that you truly comprehend, make use of via comparative analysis and are truly relevant to your design goals & objectives.
Don’t forget – keep track of your references NOW – don’t go back and retrace your steps later – it is a HUGE waste of your time to do things twice. There are e-tools to help with this:
Citation software – Endnote – part of Word, iBib, http://www.zotero.org/
You can also export citations right from the library database search engines as you retrieve articles.
Always err on the side of caution and cite the work and ideas of others.
Deciding what to cite is based on your understanding of plagiarism – an issue of ethical practice.
Watch video clip:
Discussion in small groups – how commonplace do you think plagiarism is? Is there a difference to you between copying ‘just a portion’ vs an entire assignment?
Some stats to review after hearing from each group:
ACADEMIC INTEGRITY IN COLLEGE AND GRADUATE SCHOOL:
A survey of over 63,700 US undergraduate and 9,250 graduate students over the course of three years (2002-2005)–conducted by Donald McCabe, Rutgers University–revealed the following:
- 36% of undergraduates admit to “paraphrasing/copying few sentences from Internet source without footnoting it.”
- o 24% of graduate students self report doing the same
- 38% admit to “paraphrasing/copying few sentences from written source without footnoting it.”
- o 25% of graduate students self report doing the same
- 14% of students admit to “fabricating/falsifying a bibliography”
- o 7% of graduate students self report doing the same
- 7% self report copying materials “almost word for word from a written source without citation.”
- o 4% of graduate students self report doing the same
- 7% self report “turning in work done by another.”
- o 3% of graduate students self report doing the same
- 3% report “obtaining paper from term paper mill.”
- o 2% of graduate students report doing so
Discussion: Revisit any follow-up comments from students/groups.
For consideration: posted via lecture notes
Humber policy : http://library.humber.ca/copyright-plagiarism
Humber clearly defines plagiarism as:
‘Plagiarism is the act of submitting as your own, material which is in whole, or in substantial part, someone else’s work. Students are expected to acknowledge the sources of ideas and expressions they use in essays, reports, assignments, etc. Failure to do so constitutes plagiarism and is punishable by academic penalty’.
As an adult learner, we expect you to demonstrate professional behavior which discludes academic misconduct or dishonesty. It is essential that you understand the ethical use of the work and ideas of others. Reference Academic Dishonesty on page 41 of the Humber Academic Regulations published annually. Some key excerpts from http://www.humber.ca/sites/www.humber.ca/files/academic-regulations/2013-_2014_admissions_req_academic_regs.pdf include:
a) Plagiarism, in the broadest sense, is misrepresenting the work of others as one’s own. Plagiarism can be understood as the act of copying, reproducing or paraphrasing significant portions of someone else’s published or unpublished material, and representing these as one’s own thinking by not acknowledging the appropriate source or by the failure to use appropriate quotation marks. This includes, but is not limited to, print material, photos, drawings, computer code, and designs. Students have the responsibility to learn and to use the conventions of documentation, and, if in any doubt, are encouraged to consult with the faculty member of the course, or the Program Coordinator.
b) Copying another person’s answers to an examination question.
c) Using another’s data or research findings.
d) Buying or selling essays, papers, or assignments.
e) Copying from or using prohibited material in an assignment or examination including, but not limited to, textbooks or other documentary or electronic equipment, personal notes, or other aids not approved by the faculty member, for example, accessing unauthorized test questions from an electronic database.
f) Improper academic practices including the falsification, fabrication, or misrepresentation of material that is part of academic valuation, the learning process, or scholarly exchange. This offence would include reference to resources that are known not to exist or the listing of others who have not contributed to the work.
g) Co-operating or collaborating in the completion of an academic assignment, in whole or in part, when the instructor has indicated that the assignment is to be completed on an individual basis. Humber reserves the right to utilize authentication and/or plagiarism detection software as a means of determining academic dishonesty.
Our program, and Humber College, treat plagiarism very seriously. It is unacceptable, no matter the circumstance. Make sure you understand the issue and the ethics – make it part of your academic and professional priorities. As always, lead by example.
You can read more on this in the Academic Regulations, Section 17.4 Academic Misconduct Penalties via: http://www.humber.ca/sites/www.humber.ca/files/academic-regulations/2013-_2014_admissions_req_academic_regs.pdf
Q&A time –followed by individual critiques on progressing work.
For further clarity on plagiarism, here are more resources:
Here are some samples of original excerpts and how writers used them. Discuss in your groups whether each example should be cited or not. Then share an example from your progress work.
THE BEST WEBSITE EVER ! for help with every aspect of understanding plagiarism and fair dealing and sources –it is a designer researcher’s best friend! http://www.plagiarism.org/resources/helpful-sites/
Consider investing time using a web-based tool to screen your progress submissions. I will require your final submission to include a report from one of the following:
Writecheck – for students as a writing aid
Turnitin – used by schools to check content
Grammerly – used by students/faculty
iThenticate – used by professional writers
Check out the options above and note what format you need to submit and what type of feedback each source provides. Some are more instructive than others.
In the design process, your emerging ideas are strengthened when you test them against precedents – whether that is the work of historical masters, published projects, places you visit, images you find.
However, using someone else’s words, ideas, or concepts without citing your source is plagiarism. As is presenting part or all of another student’s work as your own. Consider this also when you are searching the web for visual research files and then integrating those ideas into your own design.
Pinterest is a great tool for collecting ideas and thoughts, however, you need to visit the actual/original site that the image was taken from and cite that source. Houzz.com is similar, ensure you give credit to the source/creator/author/designer – this is not the same as where you may have found it.
When you can, include the DOI in your citation. Here is an explanation of DOI from http://library.concordia.ca/services/users/faculty/permanentlinks.php
The URL (Uniform Resource Locator or Web address) that appears in Internet Explorer’s or another Web browser’s address box, when an online article is viewed, is usually intended to be temporary and often does not function a few days or weeks later. Links designated as “permanent”, “persistent” or “stable” are designed specifically to remain active and useable over time. – See more at: http://library.concordia.ca/services/users/faculty/permanentlinks.php#sthash.9la8VhBT.dpuf
There is also a free online tool called the Free DOI Lookup which can be used to locate DOIs (see Locating and Using Permanent Links). It is important to note that not all articles have DOIs.
To convert a DOI to a Web address add the following URL to the DOI:
Therefore the above example becomes:
– See more at: http://library.concordia.ca/services/users/faculty/permanentlinks.php#sthash.9la8VhBT.dpuf
Often you have to go to the source to find the DOI – I love that it means you are really investigating your source! Sneaky eh?
Our library has excellent suggestions for ethical use of images:
Image alternatives: Check a site’s terms and conditions and cite the source.
You may find that those sources simply do not have design visuals to assist you in your research. There are excellent periodicals which have articles and images you can follow fair dealings guidelines to make use of. Again, when in doubt, err on the side of caution and cite your source.
- end lesson and related resources.